She may be named for her mother’s sister; note that a Geertruy Jans sponsors baptisms of (for example) Marritje Andriessen’s firstborn, Jannetje.
We find Geertruyd frequently in records of both Fort Orange and Wiltwyck/Kingston, also across the Hudson River from Fort Orange on Papscanee Kil. Records of marriages with conflicting dates, along with varying indications of when she died, suggest there was likely more than one Geertruyd Andriessen in this part of the colony, possibly with one, married three times, living in the Esopus (Wildwyck [Kingston] and Nieuw Dorp [Hurley]) and the other, sister to Barbara, Lucas, et al., married in 1658 and then living at Papscanee, across the river from Fort Orange, until at least 1695, coming to Wildwyck for baptisms and other events. There was one more too.
Fort Orange probably has more than 1,000 residents (the communities of Fort Orange, Beverwijck and Rensselaerswyck are distinct but adjacent, so we find people and records showing up in all three places at various times; the settlements developed roughly where Albany is today).
Wildwyck (Kingston today) at least at first is only a few dozen houses behind a palisade, and then a couple dozen more lots get added, and then a whole new town (Nieuw Dorp, later called Hurley) is set up nearby, to the south and west.
See Shirley Dunn’s article “Settlement Patterns in Rensselaerswijck: Locating Seventeenth Century Farms on the East Side of the Hudson,” for an extensive discussion of the settlement in Papscanee Island and Creek, including excellent maps (De Halve Maen,Fall 1994, Vol. lxvii No. 3, Holland Society of New York, pp. 62-74).
Fort Orange was developed as a military outpost to protect the fur traders who brought in beaver pelts from inland to be shipped down to Manhattan and across the Atlantic. Cash was in short supply, so beaver pelts (and some other common commodities) developed into being a regulated means of exchange for settling debts.
Beverwijck developed at first as a collection of houses outside of Fort Orange but adjacent to it and under its protection. This created problems for the military officers running the fort (since nearby houses got in the way of the fort’s defenses), and eventually Stuyvesant had to establish boundaries and grant Beverwijck status as a town, with its own court and administration. It shortly grew larger than New Amsterdam at the southern tip of Manhattan.
Rensselaerswyck developed outside of the WIC sphere as a private patroonship run by the Van Rensselaer family and their managers. Tenants on Rensselaerswyck land were beholden to the Rensselaers and not the WIC; people who lived in Beverwijck were under the WIC’s umbrella. Fort Orange, a military outpost, was somewhat under a separate governance.
The land grant to the Rensselaers incorporated extensive lands on both sides of the river, where Beverwijck and Fort Orange were restricted just to their particular locations on the west bank of the Hudson (called the North River at the time). The Rensselaers had land on the east shore of the Hudson, some excellent farmland, but the church was on the west side, and the family early on indicated that it did not want a village developing where the good farmland was. Their intent was to have farms and farmhouses on the east bank, but to have a church and village on the west side. These were to be linked by a ferry.
The first ferryman was Harry Alberts, from London. He was succeeded by Jacob Janssen Stol, who also signed his name Jacob Hap, and who also had the name Slyckkooten. One of the Geertruyd Andriessens married first Harry, then Jacob, both ferrymen. (See Rensselaerswyck Court Minutes 1648-1652, Van Laer, p. 135, among other notes.) Harry Alberts signs a contract as ferrymaster 7 June 1642; by 1650 he is “deceased.” A 1651 settlement over the question of whether Stol should be allowed to do other business in addition to his work as ferryman, or whether he, like Alberts, should devote himself exclusively to the ferry work (RCM pp. 144-145), suggests that Alberts may have died in 1648. In 1649 (RCM p. 88), Willem Juriaensz calls Jacob Jansz Stol a whoremonger and accuses his wife of being a whore, “which led to a fight.”
Geertruy’s sister Barbara lives in Wildwyck, and is raising a family there. In late 1661, Geertruy gets married in Kingston. By the time she’s done, Geertruy is living across the Hudson from Albany, in Papscanee (the name of both a creek and an island on the Hudson), with her husband Jan Thomase, from Witbeck, which is in Schleswig.
10 June 1648, in Manhattan (New Amsterdam Marriages, p. 15), Jan Thomaszen van Oostenvelt posts banns to marry “Geertúrÿd Andries.” Van Laer (ERA Vol 3, p. 483 footnote) explains that “van Oostenvelt” in this 1648 marriage record “undoubtedly refers to Ostenfeld, a village in the former duchy of Sleswick, a few miles east of Husum, and in the immediate vicinity of Wittbek” (“in spite of the reference to Holsteyn”).
17 October 1649 in New Amsterdam Geertie Andries (with Egbert Wouterszen, Ruth Jacobszen, Jannetje Jans) sponsors baptism of Jan, son of Jan Janzen Kuÿper (Manhattan Baptisms, p. 26).
1 October 1651 Geertruÿd Andries (with Daniel Lisko, Andries Harpertszen, Thomas Samlam, Marritie Cornelis) sponsors baptism of Maria, daughter of Jan Franzen (Manhattan Baptisms, p. 30).
11 Jan 1652, Robbert Vastrick is “bail for Lucas, the brother in law of Jan Thomasz, and his partner Arijen” (Ship Passenger Lists, p. 79; this is from A[rnold] J[ohan] F[erdinand] van Laer, “Settlers of Rensselaerswyck, 1630-1658,” in Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, Being the Letters of Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, 1630-1643, and Other Documents Relating to the Colony of Rensselaerswyck. Albany: University of the State of New York, 1908 (805-846)[Lancour No. 76]). Geertruy Andriessen, sister of Lucas Andriessen, is married to Jan Thomasz. For more on this, see also Rensselaerswyck Court Minutes 1648-1652, p. 180; it had to do with Willem Albertsz, and a fight. Janny Venema mentions Jan Thomasz several times in Beverwyck; she notes (p. 442) that he was a magistrate and deacon there on a fairly steady basis from 1653-1663. Acknowledging his land ownership in Papscanee, she discusses (pp. 250-254) his relationship with Volckert Jansen Douw and their partnership in farming and running a brewery.
14 April 1658 Geertie Andries (with Cornelis Pluvier) sponsors baptism of Henricus, son of Jochem Beeckman and Margriet Hendricks (Manhattan Baptisms, p. 48); this is probably the Geertruy who is married to Cornelis Pluvier.
11 December 1660: Geertruy is present for the first baptism recorded in Wildwyck: Sophia, the daughter of Hendrick Martensen, of Coppenhage, soldier. (The other witnesses: Jan Jansen, carpenter, and Aeltjen Claas, whose name makes her sound related to Tjerck and Emmerentje and kin, but who never seems to be closely tied to them. Aeltje marries Hendrick Arentsen and raises kids in Wildwyck.)
14 August 1661: Geertruy is in town “from Fort Orange” for the baptism of Cornelis, son of Aart Pietersen Tack and Annetje Adriaensen.
15 August 1661
in Fort Orange (Early Records of Albany, Vol. I, p. 377), Cristoffel Davidts grants to “Geertruy Anderiesen widow of Jacob Janssen Stoll deceased . . . a piece of cleared land lying in the Esopus, adjoining to the north Madame Ebbingh and to the south Jurriaen Westvael, in two parcels, together about thirty-six morgens, also a piece of pasture land of about twenty morgens, extending to the wood, for the sum of fourteen hundred guilders”; Cristoffel conveys 600 guilders of this price to Jeremias Van Rensselaer based on a 13 July 1657 agreement with Jacob Janssen Stoll (who must have been alive at the time).
On 26 August 1661 (ERA Vol. 3, pp. 98-99), in Beverwyck, “Geertruyt Andriesz, widow of the late Jacob Janssz Stol, dwelling in the Esopus” acknowledges a debt to Jan Bastiaensz van Gutzenhoven of 213 guilders, for “purchase and delivery of diverse wares and merchandise”; Van Laer adds in a note that “Jacob Jansen Stol was killed in the first Esopus Indian war in 1659. See Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N.Y., 13:118, 119, 157.” Geertruyt signs with a mark. Van Laer repeats the amount of the debt in a list on p. 112 of the same volume (when Jan Bastiaensz gives his accounting to Jeremias Van Rensselaer, on 12 September), with a further note: “Geertruy Andriesen van Doesburch, the widow of Jacob Jansen Stol. Her first husband was Harry Albertsen from London. See Early Records of Albany, 1:377, and Van Rensselaer Bowier Mss., p. 609, 822.”
On 26 August 1661 (ERA Vol. 3, pp. 99-100), “Geertruyt Andriesz van Doesburch, widow of Jacob Jansz Stol, dwelling in the Esopus,” appears before a notary to certify a power of attorney to “Hendrick Andriesz, her brother, proposing to depart for Holland,” she wants him to retrieve from “Mr. Maxmiliaen Van Geele, merchant at Amsterdam” a power of attorney she made in 1660 in Beverwijck concerning the inheritance due to Jan Jacobsz Stol, her son, from the estate of Jan Jacobsz Stol, “deceased at Amsterdam in Holland,” the father of her late husband (and grandfather of the child). The power of attorney suggests that Hendrick should bring the boy’s inheritance back with him, or do whatever is required “to the behoof and for the best advantage of the child.” Janny Venema (Beverwyck, p. 33) identifies Hendrick as a former gunstock maker, who possibly pursued the same profession in New Netherland.
18 December 1661, second marriage recorded in Kingston, N.Y. (at the time called Wildwyck): Aart Martensen Doorn, tailor, j.m. [young man], of Well, in Bomlerwaert [Bommelerwaard, in Gelderland], and Geertruy Andriesse, widow of Jacob Janse Stoll, of Doesburgh, in Gelderlant [Doesborgh, on Yssel, near Arnhem], both residing here in the village Wildwyck, in the district Esopus. First publication of Banns, 27 November; second, 4 December; third, 11 December.
On 18 December 1661, “Geertruy Andriesse, widow of Jacob Janse Stoll,” residing “in the village Wiltwyck, in the district Esopus” is the second woman whose marriage is recorded in the Dutch Reformed Church in Wiltwyck (p. 499, Records of the Old Dutch Church in Kingston). She marries “Aart Martensen Doorn, tailor.” It appears that this Geertruy Andriessen is from “Doesburgh, in Gelderland,” on the river IJssel, near Arnhem (unless that description applies to her deceased former husband).
3 May 1663: Geertruy Andries, with Evert Pels, witnesses baptism of Abraham, son of Christoffel Davids and [Maria] Martens. Not sure which Geertruy this is, but for what it’s worth, note that Christoffel Davits is the one who on 15 August 1661 (see above) sold Geertruy from Doesburg (the one who got married three times) her land in the Esopus.
Jan Tomassen was one of the original grantees at Nieuwe Dorp (Hurley) in 1663; see Halve Maen article on Swartwout in Fall 1994 (Vol. lxvii No. 3, Holland Society of New York), pp. 51-52. Is this the same Jan Tomassen from Papscanee?
In December 1663 (Kingston Papers, p. 110), Geertruy is “wife of Aert Martensen Doorn” and with him seeks guardian for Jan Jacobs Slyckkoten, her child from a previous marriage (which would be Jacob Janse Stoll, as might be surmised from the son’s patronymic). [Side note: See A.J.F. Van Laer, in “Settlers of Rensselaerswyck” (Ship Passenger Lists, p. 70), where he describes Stol in 1645 as “signs himself Jacob Jansz Hap . . . He acted as skipper between Rensselaerswyck and New Amsterdam in July 1649, and soon after . . . as ferrymaster of the colony. In 1658, he lived at the Esopus where with Evert Pels he had bought land in 1654.”]
17 February 1664: Geertruy Andriessen, “from Fort Orange,” and Luycas Andriessen, residing at the Manathans, and Jan Claessen, and Tryntje Tyssen witness baptism of Claes, son of TCDW and Barbara Andriessen.
In October 1664 (Kingston Papers, p. 163), Tjerck calls Jan Tomassen in Fort Orange his brother-in-law; Jan Tomassen is married to Geertruyd Andriessen.
25 January 1665: Geertruy Andriessen, solo, witnesses baptism of Debora, daughter of Christoffel Davids and Maria Martensen
On 10 September 1666, Kingston Papers (p. 613) has a useful description of family relations showing Aert Martensen Doorn and Geertruyd Andriessen still married; with Jan Hendericks and Engelje Hendericks as kids of deceased Henderick Alberts, and their step-brother Jan Jacobesen Slyckkooten, son of Jacob Jansen Slyckkooten, still a minor, all children of Geertruyd Andriessen; Aert is thus the third husband of this Geertruy Andriessen.
On October 15, 1668, Geertruy’s sister Barbara has a daughter named Geertruyd, and the baptism is witnessed by her brothers Jan and Luyckas and sister Mar[i]tie. Where is Geertruy? We might think she has perished. But later records show she is still in Papscanee (across from modern Albany), the wife of Jan Thomase, from Witbeck (near Husum, in Schleswig). Odd.
On 26 October 1668 (KP, p. 414), Geertruy is widow of Jacob Jansen Stoll, with son (from a different father) named Jan Hendericksen. This matches description given above on 10 September 1666.
See a 1670 description (p. 64) in Shirley Dunn’s article in De Halve Maen (cited above) of “Volckert Janse and Jan Thomas, joint owners of the old Symon Walichsz farm at the center of the island”; “Van Rensselaer complained that Volckert had insulted him and that Jan Thomas had threatened to injure Van Rensselaer’s farmer, Cees Oom (Cornelis Teunis Van Vechten), with a sharp weapon” (footnote in Dunn’s article refers to CM 1668-1673, p. 157).
In 1679 (ERA Vol 3 pp. 483-485), Geertruyt Andries and husband Jan Thomaesz write a joint will, in Paepsackane, “about an hour’s journey from New Albany”; it is witnessed by her brother Jan and Volckart Douw, a fellow Lutheran. The will describes Geertruyt as “born at New York.” There are at least two Jan Thomassens in Van Laer’s Early Records of Albany; see various mentions of Jan Thomassen Witbeck and Johannes Thomassen Mingael; Geertruy Andries is wife of the Jan Thomassen from Witbeeck, near Husum, who is connected to Lutheran Volckert Janssen Douw, from Frederickstadt (“or Stapelholm”) nearby; see ERA Vol. III, p. 483.
In 1681 Dunn describes “Jan Thomas and Volckert Janse, crusty and uncooperative old individuals,” who “fumed that they had been on the farm ‘for 42 or 43 years’ without such fencing” (p. 67, footnote refers to CM 1680-1685, pp. 108, 119, 352).
12 September 1682, Geertruy’s widower Aard Martenz van Dooren, of Wel, in Gelderlant, posts Banns to marry Jannetie Nimmer (widow of John Spraak), but at Jannetie’s request, the plans are discontinued. (Geertruy Andriessen has died.)
9 December 1684, Geertruy’s widower Aard Martensz van Doorn marries Aeltie Lansing, widow of Gerard Slegtenhorst, of Hassel, in Overijssel. Married in Hurley.
In January 1685, according to Janny Venema (Beverwijck, p. 254), Geertruyd Andriessen, widow of Jan Thomasz, requested a reduction of her taxes. (Venema cites Van Laer’s translation of Minutes of the Court of Albany, Vol. 3, p. 506, as her source, adding a comparison from Ariadne Schmidt, Overleven in de Gouden Eeuw, 172.)
On 5 August 1695, “Van Rensselaer gave a deed to Gertruy Andries, widow of Jan Thomas Witbeck,” at the center of Papscanee Island (Dunn article in Halve Maen, p. 67, footnote refers to VRBM, 384, 826; Victor Hugo Paltsis, ed. Inventory of the Rensselaerswyck Manuscripts [New York, 1856], 19). Gertruy Andries is still alive.
At least one of these Geertruy Andriessens appears to have land in the Esopus and is involved in building a bridge at one point (see KP).
(Almost certainly the wrong Geertruyd Andriessen, and neither of the two noted above: In Iconography, Vol II, at Lot No. 17 in the De Sille List we find Cornelis Jansen Pluyvier (pp. 224-225), son of Jan Jansen Pluvier, husband of Geertruyd Andriessen, “from Kosevelt (Koesfeld, in Westphalia, Germany),” who “was living in Haarlem in Holland on September 5, 1656, when he and his wife . . . made their joint wills; she was very ill at the time.” He files an inventory of her estate December 15, 1661 (Minutes of Orphan Court, I: 199-202) before he remarries Neeltje Couwenhoven (New Amsterdam Marriages, p. 27). Can this be “our” Geertruyd Andriessen? Almost certainly not. Ours is present “from Fort Orange” in Kingston for baptism of Klaes in 1664, but not in 1668 for baptism of Geertruyd De Witt; all her other North American siblings are there. Huh. Suggestion in Iconography is that this particular Geertruy Andriessen never came to North America, but see Manhattan Baptisms, p. 48, where “Geertie Andries” and Cornelis Pluvier sponsor baptism of Henricus, son of Jochem Beeckman and Margriet Hendricks 14 April 1658; it sounds as if she survived the trip, which explains why he would file an estate inventory here, instead of back in Europe. So at one point there were actually three Geertruy Andriessens living in the little colony.)